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Picture yourself flying from Vancouver, Canada to a business meeting in Chongqing, China beginning from leaving your apartment to the meeting site. Here is a wordy description: Before you leave the building, you need to take the elevator. Stairs are too slow and tedious. After leaving the building, you called the taxi to get to the airport: You don't use public transit because you can't afford to wait for buses and you can't handle baggages in crowded spaces.

You don't take the train because they can't travel across the ocean. You don't go on ships because they are too slow. However, you don't get into a fighter jet because supersonic speed is overkill and fighter jets require expensive maintenance after each flight (I think). Commercial airlines are fast and efficient enough, and it has been optimized over and over again to carry many people at a time.

Before you board the plane, you go through the pipelines of checkout, security, baggages, waiting. Wait, I forgot to mention that there's no direct flight from Vancouver to Chongqing, instead, you first fly to Beijing then take another flight to Chongqing.

After you landed in Chongqing, you are still 50km away from the meeting site: Another taxi ride to the front door of the building, and then another elevator ride to the exact floor of the meeting room.

Now here's a more concise, but science fictional example that explains transportation hierarchy: Suppose you are living in an interstellar civilization and you want to take a relativistic flight from a Martian colony in the Sol system to a lunar colony in Alpha Centauri:
 - You go to the airport and ride a plane to the equator
 - Then you take the shuttle to high Mars orbit (space launches are cheaper in the equator due to planet rotation)
 - You arrive at a space station, and you ride a bigger ship to escape from Mars and head to the interstellar shipyard between the orbit of Jupiter and Saturn (It takes months to years)
 - You board the relativistic spacecraft, and depart to Alpha Centauri. In the initial acceleration phase, the ship gets accelerated by a megastructure that emit lasers

Now let's think about faster-than-light travel in science fiction: Ever heard of a FTL drive (that's not teleportation or wormholes) that allows you to fly from your house to your friend's house in a distant colony light years away?

The theory of transportation hierarchy is what 22C urban planners subscribe to. It is first developed by a Russian author in late 21C in the book "Travel Fast, Travel Slow: The Theory Behind Getting from Point A to Point B" (erroneously referred as "[The Theory] of Transportation Hierarchy"). Transportation hierarchy is based on the common sense that one does not ride a fighter jet to get to school. Transportation hierarchy is applicable to scales from small villages to interstellar civilizations. Transportation hierarchy is about the traveling over a short or long distance while trading off between energy and time, just like memory hierarchy is about storing and retrieving a little or a lot of data while trading off between cost and speed.

A transportation hierarchy is a system of ways to get from point A to point B. The hierarchy center around three concepts: distance (or speed), organization and means of transportation. On the top of the hierarchy, larger distances are covered, on the top of geographical organization, and the means of transportation are high-speed and tend to travel in straight lines without stopping. If Earth is the top of the transportation hierarchy, then spacecrafts and long-range aircrafts are the means of transportation that dominate this level. As we move down the hierarchy (state, province, city), the distance covered decrease (50Mm, 1Mm, 100km), the speed decrease (500km/h+, 150km/h, 80km/h). When we reach sub-city levels, we start to deal with moving with cars, public transit or on foot, and the tradeoffs between point-to-point (cars) and spoke-hub (public transit).

Here is a summary of levels of transportation hierarchy, real and science fictional:

Galactic: 10000ly, FTL travel, most paths need straight lines
Interstellar: 100ly, relativistic travel, it's important to start far from the gravity well
Solar system: 10AU, transfer orbits, it's important to carry less mass, time launches well and start higher from planetary gravity wells
Planetary orbit: 1Gm, transfer orbits, it's more useful to measure gravitational potential difference or delta V than distances

International flights: 10Mm
Domestic flights: 5Mm, some common international paths are be point-to-point, while most possible international parts require transfer to hubs

Provincial: 1Mm, Flights or highways depending on the traveller's needs
City, district: 50km (commuting), public transit should cover more possible paths, and for cars, congestion waste time and fuel, cars should approximate the straight line from A to B

Neighborhood: 3km (walking), everything should be within walking distance, but unlike cars, stopping and turning are not burdens
Building: 80m, elevators for tall buildings

Floor: 30m
Room: 4m

An effect of having transportation hierarchy is that the time to get from point A to point B can potentially depend on how many levels traversed, not the distance of the shortest path from A to B. Another way to see it is that negligible distances (for example, the 30km drive to the airport for a 1000km flight) during a trip might not translate to negligible times (the 30km drive and the check-in will take 2 hours, compared to the 2-4-hour flight).

The tradeoffs between point-to-point and spoke-hub, on top of the need to save the environment, are the most visible applications of transportation hierarchy. 22C urban planning involve balancing these factors by artificially constructing levels of transportation hierarchy:
 - Speed (walking vs. riding vehicles)
 - Energy efficiency
 - Scalability and throughput (transportation for a family vs. transportation for a city)
 - Cost
 - Flexibility (Point-to-point vs. hubs)

The means of transportation that dominate city-scale are trains, cars and feet, but by changing the structure of roads they travel on, their parameters will change radically.

To make cars travel faster (save time) and stop less often (save energy), 22C urban planners managed to design roads to make cars travel at highway speeds in almost-straight lines more often. Three-dimensional road layouts are what 22C cities can have. The tradeoff is that cars stop at large parking lots below blocks (22C definition: an area of at most 20-30min walking distance) and people need to walk to the precise destination.

To pack more people per square meter, 22C cities are also built to be tall. Skyscraper apartments are common. The elevator is the vertical counterpart of the car, since an elevator, like a car, covers a long distance in short time. The gain for adding elevators is limited. The first optimization is to let passengers enter the destination before stepping into the elevator and the elevator software intelligently schedule the floor to stop at. However, the most radical change 22C architects came up with is the so-called "serial-parallel configurations". In serial-parallel configurations, more elevators are added without increasing the floor areas elevators occupy. The conceptually simplest way to achieve that is to add more independent elevators per shaft. However, the way to solve the problem with transportation hierarchy is to artificially introduce levels of transportation hierarchy.

Let's say there is a 300-floor skyscraper. We can divide the 300 floors into ten 30-floor floor groups. For each floor group, the lowest floors in the group are the master floors for each floor group. There are a few central high-capacity elevators (master elevators) that only stop in the master floors (the vertical counterpart of public transit). For floors within the floor groups, there are elevators that span only within the floor group. Variations include more floor group subdivisions. (The optimal number of floor group subdivisions and what should be in each subdivision is a computational problem)

See also: gizmodo.com/5905096/the-postal…
In the Half Earth universe, magical power is limited to certain groups of humans and aliens: In the Age of Three Empires, only the Jali Empire has magic integrated to all aspects of their culture, to the extent magic can replace technology and become weapons. There was a controversy over whether magic is innate to all humans (and a magic-enabled culture is required to unlock the potential), or innate to a limited number of races (for example, the citizens of Jali (Jalians)). Magical powers were observed in the non-magical cultures, but they were not recognized as magic and they were called "psychic power", "neigong", until scientists discovered the biological basis of magic.

During the Age of Three Empires, the controversy was only a secret knowledge, of the so-called Outliers, who can take command all three of magic, martial arts and technology. Research over this topic were also done by several militaries in order to create super-soldiers.

In the Post-Empire Age (tech level equivalent of our Earth's 2020), the former empires retained their cultured, therefore their specializations (magic, martial arts and technology). With freer flow of ideas, members of non-magical cultures began to find ways to gain magical powers. That was when the problem of "Is magic innate?" became known to everyone.

In the next century, scientists scrambled to uncover the biological basis of magic: They realized magical energy is part of every human's body, but the potential to control and amplify magic (powerful enough for combat and replace most technologies) has strong genetic basis. After the conclusion became public, non-post-Jalians suddenly wanted to find Jalians as mates. The future will be the universal access of magical powers.
In the previous posts, I talked about how to move people in 22C cities: on foot, on car or public transit. However, aside from carrying people, another important purpose of transportation is carrying cargoes.

22C urban planning demand a separate network for shipping goods to enable hyper-efficient online shopping. It allows anything, including grocery, to be purchased online and arrive within 30 minutes (not necessarily arrive at the same time). Predictive shipping is an idea first formulated by Amazon to make more people buy stuff online by speeding up shipping, and predictive shipping is the foundation of 22C online shopping, made more efficient by the dedicated infrastructure.

In 19C and 20C, pneumatic tubes are used to deliver mail quickly. In 22C, the pneumatic tubes became upscaled into technologies for public transit and cargo delivery. Of course, people and cargoes are too heavy to be propelled by compressed air and the transportation systems are not tube-shaped. Forget about how pneumatic tubes work and focus on what they are designed to do.

The hidden infrastructure of cargoes is independent from, but similar to the network of roads for transporting people. The technologies to transport people like trains and elevators are fair game for cargoes. However, the form factors of the cargoes enables efficient methods of transportation: Unlike people, cargoes can be crammed into tight space, and there is no need for environmental control for most cargoes. The distributors are sources of cargoes and the delivery network reach into buildings through elevators (elevators dedicated to cargoes, of course), and end up in individual apartments.

Like parking lots for cars, cargoes can be stored in hubs around the city, but 22C people do not call them warehouses because retrieving a cargo is does not require human intervention. The warehouses are designed to reduce congestion of cargo traffic or to predictively ship goods people want to buy.

Predictively shipped items do not stay in a hub forever: They might be "evicted" from a hub in order to make rooms for other cargoes, moving to another hub, or making a round trip back to it. The energy waste for roundtrips is relatively small since the difference between carrying 6 and carrying 7 items on a train is negligible.

The predictive shipping system exploit another fact to increase speed and save energy: Not everyone need their stuff immediately. For example, most people need their grocery by 6 hours, and the average delivery time 20 minutes is more than fast. However, if someone needs something immediately (to satisfy hunger or thirst or cure injury, but they are contrived examples in 22C), it's possible to pay more for faster delivery and specify exactly how fast.

Brick-and-mortar stores still exist in 22C cities: Some things are meant to be tried in person, like fashion and cars. 22C physical stores, in order to compete with online shopping, must set up museum-like experiences to allow the potential customers interact with the items in person.

Up next: Transportation Hierarchy
22C urban planning and transportation is designed under the theory of transportation hierarchy. The theory of transportation hierarchy is inspired by memory hierarchy in computer architecture. Transportation hierarchy tells about efficient ways to transport people and goods, and it applicable in all scales: From driving to school to organizing an FTL-enabled galactic civilization. See also: If all stories were written like science fiction stories (web.archive.org/web/2009121609…. Notice the role of cars.
In Half Earth physics, some elementary particles are rod-shaped or ring-shaped rather than point-shaped.

The rod-shaped particles are often called lines, line segments, line-like particles or even cylinders.

In addition to position and velocity, rod-like particles possess angular orientation and angular velocity. While point-like particles generate radial fields in order to maintain point symmetry, rod-like particles generate fields that exhibit mirror symmetry and rotational symmetry with axis of the particle's angular orientation. Many rod-like particles are electric dipoles.

The ring-shaped particles ("ring-like") posses radius but no length: They can be treated like rod-shaped particles except they are closed loops. Some ring-like particles can change radius when energy is added or removed.

Both rod and rings are one dimensional shapes embedded in three dimensions. However, two-dimensional sheet-like particles are never observed.

Rods and rings are foundation of Half Earth chemistry. Atoms are typically pyramids and tetrahedrons made of charged particles: sions (sai-on, single-charge particles), dions (dual-charge particles, like RG, RB and GB) held by rod-like counterparts: siods (single-charge dipole) and diods (dual-charge dipoles).

Atomic particles are named consistently in internationally-recognized words:  

  • Single-charge
  • Dual-charge
  • Neutral

         

Point-like

 

  • sion
  • dion
  • nuon

         

Rod-like

 

  • siod
  • diod
  • nuod

         

Ring-like

 

  • sioc
  • dioc
  • nuoc

Telemon terminals are mobile devices required to communicate with telemon. Telemon terminals resemble mobile phones, tablets and laptops. Telemon terminals are known for their durability and its proprietary inner working.

Material and Durability
Telmon terminals are built to withstand shock, vibration, temperature, pressure and humidity. The biggest legend about their durability is that a telemon terminal survived a drop from low Earth orbit to ground during early Pacific War. While the telemon terminal has not been found, evidence agree that the telemon terminal did not burn in during re-entry.

The telemon terminal's outer shell is built using an unknown allotrope of carbon dubbed F-Carbon. It is unbreakable, unscratchable and unbendable. Telemon terminals appear matte black, with some sparkles. The texture is smooth to touch. The surface is a moderate conductor of heat and electricity.

While all telemon terminals can sustain the rigors of a warzone, not all telemon terminals can survive a jet plane crash landing over it, or the extreme environments of space, ocean and volcano. The regular telemon terminal (as opposed to the smaller form factors) is designed for ultimate durability using protections beyond F-Carbon. Regular telemon terminals are equipped with ablative coating and several internal layers of unknown composition (metal, lead, rubber, and even empty space?), protecting the telemon terminal from extreme temperature, EMP blasts, and outer space radiation.

While the durability of the telemon terminals attract hype (see Nokia 3310), telemon terminals are fallible when they meet hot lava, nuclear blast, and deep inside nuclear power plants.

Form Factors
There are many form factors for telemon terminals to fit different needs. While they can be described in terms of 21st century electronic devices, 22Cs see them as rectangles of various sizes.

The smallest telemon terminal is a 8cm*8cm piece of touchscreen, "micro", which can be mounted as a watch, on armors, on bags with help of accessories. The biggest limitation of this form factor is that it can communicate with one telemon at time, and it cannot issue commands to a telemon, therefore, they are used like watches to check statuses.

On the next level, there are telemon terminals that resemble mobile phones from dumbphones to smartphones. Telemon terminals of these form factors are called "mini" and "regular", depending on their thickness. The mini telemon terminals are as large and as thin as a 5 to 6-inch smartphone in 2014. Mini telemon terminals can manage, including issuing commands, to one or two telemon. Regular telemon terminals are much thicker than mini telemon terminals. A typical regular telemon terminal is around 5 centimeters thick, and they appear much taller than mini telemon terminals. Despite their unexpected heavy weight, regular telemon terminals occupy the sweet spot for power and portability. Regular telemon terminals resemble the giant old cell phones. They have antennas and exhibit a physical keyboard. Regular telemon terminals allows a telemon master to manage up to 50 telemon within the radius of 5 kilometers in a city, or up to 50 kilometers in open field. The thinner, but larger variants of regular telemon terminals resemble phablets.

The larger telemon terminals, "laptop"s, can be treated as mobile command centers, allowing the telemon master to observe the whole battlefield, with locations of friend and enemy telemon terminals and telemon. Laptop telemon terminals offer a lots of screen real estate, with the lower screen being a holographic display (except some have a QWERTY keyboard instead).

deviantID

HalfEarth

Artist | Hobbyist | Digital Art
A conworlder and conlanger. I am currently building the worlds of Telemon: Homeworlds and Half Earth.
Interests

Journal History

Picture yourself flying from Vancouver, Canada to a business meeting in Chongqing, China beginning from leaving your apartment to the meeting site. Here is a wordy description: Before you leave the building, you need to take the elevator. Stairs are too slow and tedious. After leaving the building, you called the taxi to get to the airport: You don't use public transit because you can't afford to wait for buses and you can't handle baggages in crowded spaces.

You don't take the train because they can't travel across the ocean. You don't go on ships because they are too slow. However, you don't get into a fighter jet because supersonic speed is overkill and fighter jets require expensive maintenance after each flight (I think). Commercial airlines are fast and efficient enough, and it has been optimized over and over again to carry many people at a time.

Before you board the plane, you go through the pipelines of checkout, security, baggages, waiting. Wait, I forgot to mention that there's no direct flight from Vancouver to Chongqing, instead, you first fly to Beijing then take another flight to Chongqing.

After you landed in Chongqing, you are still 50km away from the meeting site: Another taxi ride to the front door of the building, and then another elevator ride to the exact floor of the meeting room.

Now here's a more concise, but science fictional example that explains transportation hierarchy: Suppose you are living in an interstellar civilization and you want to take a relativistic flight from a Martian colony in the Sol system to a lunar colony in Alpha Centauri:
 - You go to the airport and ride a plane to the equator
 - Then you take the shuttle to high Mars orbit (space launches are cheaper in the equator due to planet rotation)
 - You arrive at a space station, and you ride a bigger ship to escape from Mars and head to the interstellar shipyard between the orbit of Jupiter and Saturn (It takes months to years)
 - You board the relativistic spacecraft, and depart to Alpha Centauri. In the initial acceleration phase, the ship gets accelerated by a megastructure that emit lasers

Now let's think about faster-than-light travel in science fiction: Ever heard of a FTL drive (that's not teleportation or wormholes) that allows you to fly from your house to your friend's house in a distant colony light years away?

The theory of transportation hierarchy is what 22C urban planners subscribe to. It is first developed by a Russian author in late 21C in the book "Travel Fast, Travel Slow: The Theory Behind Getting from Point A to Point B" (erroneously referred as "[The Theory] of Transportation Hierarchy"). Transportation hierarchy is based on the common sense that one does not ride a fighter jet to get to school. Transportation hierarchy is applicable to scales from small villages to interstellar civilizations. Transportation hierarchy is about the traveling over a short or long distance while trading off between energy and time, just like memory hierarchy is about storing and retrieving a little or a lot of data while trading off between cost and speed.

A transportation hierarchy is a system of ways to get from point A to point B. The hierarchy center around three concepts: distance (or speed), organization and means of transportation. On the top of the hierarchy, larger distances are covered, on the top of geographical organization, and the means of transportation are high-speed and tend to travel in straight lines without stopping. If Earth is the top of the transportation hierarchy, then spacecrafts and long-range aircrafts are the means of transportation that dominate this level. As we move down the hierarchy (state, province, city), the distance covered decrease (50Mm, 1Mm, 100km), the speed decrease (500km/h+, 150km/h, 80km/h). When we reach sub-city levels, we start to deal with moving with cars, public transit or on foot, and the tradeoffs between point-to-point (cars) and spoke-hub (public transit).

Here is a summary of levels of transportation hierarchy, real and science fictional:

Galactic: 10000ly, FTL travel, most paths need straight lines
Interstellar: 100ly, relativistic travel, it's important to start far from the gravity well
Solar system: 10AU, transfer orbits, it's important to carry less mass, time launches well and start higher from planetary gravity wells
Planetary orbit: 1Gm, transfer orbits, it's more useful to measure gravitational potential difference or delta V than distances

International flights: 10Mm
Domestic flights: 5Mm, some common international paths are be point-to-point, while most possible international parts require transfer to hubs

Provincial: 1Mm, Flights or highways depending on the traveller's needs
City, district: 50km (commuting), public transit should cover more possible paths, and for cars, congestion waste time and fuel, cars should approximate the straight line from A to B

Neighborhood: 3km (walking), everything should be within walking distance, but unlike cars, stopping and turning are not burdens
Building: 80m, elevators for tall buildings

Floor: 30m
Room: 4m

An effect of having transportation hierarchy is that the time to get from point A to point B can potentially depend on how many levels traversed, not the distance of the shortest path from A to B. Another way to see it is that negligible distances (for example, the 30km drive to the airport for a 1000km flight) during a trip might not translate to negligible times (the 30km drive and the check-in will take 2 hours, compared to the 2-4-hour flight).

The tradeoffs between point-to-point and spoke-hub, on top of the need to save the environment, are the most visible applications of transportation hierarchy. 22C urban planning involve balancing these factors by artificially constructing levels of transportation hierarchy:
 - Speed (walking vs. riding vehicles)
 - Energy efficiency
 - Scalability and throughput (transportation for a family vs. transportation for a city)
 - Cost
 - Flexibility (Point-to-point vs. hubs)

The means of transportation that dominate city-scale are trains, cars and feet, but by changing the structure of roads they travel on, their parameters will change radically.

To make cars travel faster (save time) and stop less often (save energy), 22C urban planners managed to design roads to make cars travel at highway speeds in almost-straight lines more often. Three-dimensional road layouts are what 22C cities can have. The tradeoff is that cars stop at large parking lots below blocks (22C definition: an area of at most 20-30min walking distance) and people need to walk to the precise destination.

To pack more people per square meter, 22C cities are also built to be tall. Skyscraper apartments are common. The elevator is the vertical counterpart of the car, since an elevator, like a car, covers a long distance in short time. The gain for adding elevators is limited. The first optimization is to let passengers enter the destination before stepping into the elevator and the elevator software intelligently schedule the floor to stop at. However, the most radical change 22C architects came up with is the so-called "serial-parallel configurations". In serial-parallel configurations, more elevators are added without increasing the floor areas elevators occupy. The conceptually simplest way to achieve that is to add more independent elevators per shaft. However, the way to solve the problem with transportation hierarchy is to artificially introduce levels of transportation hierarchy.

Let's say there is a 300-floor skyscraper. We can divide the 300 floors into ten 30-floor floor groups. For each floor group, the lowest floors in the group are the master floors for each floor group. There are a few central high-capacity elevators (master elevators) that only stop in the master floors (the vertical counterpart of public transit). For floors within the floor groups, there are elevators that span only within the floor group. Variations include more floor group subdivisions. (The optimal number of floor group subdivisions and what should be in each subdivision is a computational problem)

See also: gizmodo.com/5905096/the-postal…
In the Half Earth universe, magical power is limited to certain groups of humans and aliens: In the Age of Three Empires, only the Jali Empire has magic integrated to all aspects of their culture, to the extent magic can replace technology and become weapons. There was a controversy over whether magic is innate to all humans (and a magic-enabled culture is required to unlock the potential), or innate to a limited number of races (for example, the citizens of Jali (Jalians)). Magical powers were observed in the non-magical cultures, but they were not recognized as magic and they were called "psychic power", "neigong", until scientists discovered the biological basis of magic.

During the Age of Three Empires, the controversy was only a secret knowledge, of the so-called Outliers, who can take command all three of magic, martial arts and technology. Research over this topic were also done by several militaries in order to create super-soldiers.

In the Post-Empire Age (tech level equivalent of our Earth's 2020), the former empires retained their cultured, therefore their specializations (magic, martial arts and technology). With freer flow of ideas, members of non-magical cultures began to find ways to gain magical powers. That was when the problem of "Is magic innate?" became known to everyone.

In the next century, scientists scrambled to uncover the biological basis of magic: They realized magical energy is part of every human's body, but the potential to control and amplify magic (powerful enough for combat and replace most technologies) has strong genetic basis. After the conclusion became public, non-post-Jalians suddenly wanted to find Jalians as mates. The future will be the universal access of magical powers.
In the previous posts, I talked about how to move people in 22C cities: on foot, on car or public transit. However, aside from carrying people, another important purpose of transportation is carrying cargoes.

22C urban planning demand a separate network for shipping goods to enable hyper-efficient online shopping. It allows anything, including grocery, to be purchased online and arrive within 30 minutes (not necessarily arrive at the same time). Predictive shipping is an idea first formulated by Amazon to make more people buy stuff online by speeding up shipping, and predictive shipping is the foundation of 22C online shopping, made more efficient by the dedicated infrastructure.

In 19C and 20C, pneumatic tubes are used to deliver mail quickly. In 22C, the pneumatic tubes became upscaled into technologies for public transit and cargo delivery. Of course, people and cargoes are too heavy to be propelled by compressed air and the transportation systems are not tube-shaped. Forget about how pneumatic tubes work and focus on what they are designed to do.

The hidden infrastructure of cargoes is independent from, but similar to the network of roads for transporting people. The technologies to transport people like trains and elevators are fair game for cargoes. However, the form factors of the cargoes enables efficient methods of transportation: Unlike people, cargoes can be crammed into tight space, and there is no need for environmental control for most cargoes. The distributors are sources of cargoes and the delivery network reach into buildings through elevators (elevators dedicated to cargoes, of course), and end up in individual apartments.

Like parking lots for cars, cargoes can be stored in hubs around the city, but 22C people do not call them warehouses because retrieving a cargo is does not require human intervention. The warehouses are designed to reduce congestion of cargo traffic or to predictively ship goods people want to buy.

Predictively shipped items do not stay in a hub forever: They might be "evicted" from a hub in order to make rooms for other cargoes, moving to another hub, or making a round trip back to it. The energy waste for roundtrips is relatively small since the difference between carrying 6 and carrying 7 items on a train is negligible.

The predictive shipping system exploit another fact to increase speed and save energy: Not everyone need their stuff immediately. For example, most people need their grocery by 6 hours, and the average delivery time 20 minutes is more than fast. However, if someone needs something immediately (to satisfy hunger or thirst or cure injury, but they are contrived examples in 22C), it's possible to pay more for faster delivery and specify exactly how fast.

Brick-and-mortar stores still exist in 22C cities: Some things are meant to be tried in person, like fashion and cars. 22C physical stores, in order to compete with online shopping, must set up museum-like experiences to allow the potential customers interact with the items in person.

Up next: Transportation Hierarchy
22C urban planning and transportation is designed under the theory of transportation hierarchy. The theory of transportation hierarchy is inspired by memory hierarchy in computer architecture. Transportation hierarchy tells about efficient ways to transport people and goods, and it applicable in all scales: From driving to school to organizing an FTL-enabled galactic civilization. See also: If all stories were written like science fiction stories (web.archive.org/web/2009121609…. Notice the role of cars.
In Half Earth physics, some elementary particles are rod-shaped or ring-shaped rather than point-shaped.

The rod-shaped particles are often called lines, line segments, line-like particles or even cylinders.

In addition to position and velocity, rod-like particles possess angular orientation and angular velocity. While point-like particles generate radial fields in order to maintain point symmetry, rod-like particles generate fields that exhibit mirror symmetry and rotational symmetry with axis of the particle's angular orientation. Many rod-like particles are electric dipoles.

The ring-shaped particles ("ring-like") posses radius but no length: They can be treated like rod-shaped particles except they are closed loops. Some ring-like particles can change radius when energy is added or removed.

Both rod and rings are one dimensional shapes embedded in three dimensions. However, two-dimensional sheet-like particles are never observed.

Rods and rings are foundation of Half Earth chemistry. Atoms are typically pyramids and tetrahedrons made of charged particles: sions (sai-on, single-charge particles), dions (dual-charge particles, like RG, RB and GB) held by rod-like counterparts: siods (single-charge dipole) and diods (dual-charge dipoles).

Atomic particles are named consistently in internationally-recognized words:  

  • Single-charge
  • Dual-charge
  • Neutral

         

Point-like

 

  • sion
  • dion
  • nuon

         

Rod-like

 

  • siod
  • diod
  • nuod

         

Ring-like

 

  • sioc
  • dioc
  • nuoc

Telemon terminals are mobile devices required to communicate with telemon. Telemon terminals resemble mobile phones, tablets and laptops. Telemon terminals are known for their durability and its proprietary inner working.

Material and Durability
Telmon terminals are built to withstand shock, vibration, temperature, pressure and humidity. The biggest legend about their durability is that a telemon terminal survived a drop from low Earth orbit to ground during early Pacific War. While the telemon terminal has not been found, evidence agree that the telemon terminal did not burn in during re-entry.

The telemon terminal's outer shell is built using an unknown allotrope of carbon dubbed F-Carbon. It is unbreakable, unscratchable and unbendable. Telemon terminals appear matte black, with some sparkles. The texture is smooth to touch. The surface is a moderate conductor of heat and electricity.

While all telemon terminals can sustain the rigors of a warzone, not all telemon terminals can survive a jet plane crash landing over it, or the extreme environments of space, ocean and volcano. The regular telemon terminal (as opposed to the smaller form factors) is designed for ultimate durability using protections beyond F-Carbon. Regular telemon terminals are equipped with ablative coating and several internal layers of unknown composition (metal, lead, rubber, and even empty space?), protecting the telemon terminal from extreme temperature, EMP blasts, and outer space radiation.

While the durability of the telemon terminals attract hype (see Nokia 3310), telemon terminals are fallible when they meet hot lava, nuclear blast, and deep inside nuclear power plants.

Form Factors
There are many form factors for telemon terminals to fit different needs. While they can be described in terms of 21st century electronic devices, 22Cs see them as rectangles of various sizes.

The smallest telemon terminal is a 8cm*8cm piece of touchscreen, "micro", which can be mounted as a watch, on armors, on bags with help of accessories. The biggest limitation of this form factor is that it can communicate with one telemon at time, and it cannot issue commands to a telemon, therefore, they are used like watches to check statuses.

On the next level, there are telemon terminals that resemble mobile phones from dumbphones to smartphones. Telemon terminals of these form factors are called "mini" and "regular", depending on their thickness. The mini telemon terminals are as large and as thin as a 5 to 6-inch smartphone in 2014. Mini telemon terminals can manage, including issuing commands, to one or two telemon. Regular telemon terminals are much thicker than mini telemon terminals. A typical regular telemon terminal is around 5 centimeters thick, and they appear much taller than mini telemon terminals. Despite their unexpected heavy weight, regular telemon terminals occupy the sweet spot for power and portability. Regular telemon terminals resemble the giant old cell phones. They have antennas and exhibit a physical keyboard. Regular telemon terminals allows a telemon master to manage up to 50 telemon within the radius of 5 kilometers in a city, or up to 50 kilometers in open field. The thinner, but larger variants of regular telemon terminals resemble phablets.

The larger telemon terminals, "laptop"s, can be treated as mobile command centers, allowing the telemon master to observe the whole battlefield, with locations of friend and enemy telemon terminals and telemon. Laptop telemon terminals offer a lots of screen real estate, with the lower screen being a holographic display (except some have a QWERTY keyboard instead).

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MadameAngelDoll Featured By Owner May 8, 2014  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Thanks for the :+devwatch: :D
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Thank you very much for the fav Kudryavka Noumi (Smile) [V1]
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thanx for the share and fav :)
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Thanks for the watch! Bunny Emoji-26 (Teehee) [V2] 
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thank you very much for the watch!:iconahehplz:
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